What Are Stem Cells from Fat Tissue?
Differences between protocols with stem cells from bone marrow and from fat tissue
Potential and quantity:
Stem cells from fat tissue are cells distributed on the tissue renewing the same tissue where they are located, even that they have a multipotent ability, they have to go thru transportation from one tissue to another to be differentiated into another cell line if capable. The extraction volume is limited to the tissue of that particular patient and has the option of additional extraction procedures in other areas of the body.
Access to stem cells from fat tissue is an invasive procedure, with anesthesia and with the pros and cons of a liposuction. The extraction should be made at a hospital; it can be done on any point of time as long as is executed with the standard medical practices of surgery.
In both cases compatibility works similarly. When the donor and the recipient are the same person (autologous), compatibility is a complete match. If the donor and the recipient are different (allogeneic), HLA compatibility tests must be performed before any procedure.
Manipulation and storage
A collection procedure must be performed for any source of stem cells. The more complicated the procedure, the higher the probability of contamination of the stem cells or of collecting a reduced amount. Bone marrow is not processed to extract the stem cells needed for storage or transport, preventing reduction of the amount of stem cells. Fat tissue generally goes through a separation of its components, and it is cultured to produce stem cells. If they are going to be stored for future use they also go thru a preservation process. Some volume of stem cells will be lost due to the nature of these processes.
ProgenCell performs only autologous protocols, performing the infusion immediately after extraction and activation of stem cells. These protocols do not require the separation of blood into components, nor storage, transport or cryopreservation, eliminating the possibility of contamination and decrement in the cellular quantity and viability introduced by these steps. ProgenCell uses total bone marrow for the infusion, infusing not only stem cells but also the growth factors and all components of the bone marrow.
Fat stem cells began to be used recently after discovering the potential of this type of cell and after searching for tissues as a source of stem cells. Their use in treatment of degenerative diseases is uncommon and still experimental. Few hospitals worldwide are currently conducting research with these treatments.
Conclusion: Experience with bone marrow is greater than with fat cells. Because of the flexibility of multiple extractions of bone marrow it is a “limitless” source of stem cells. For autologous use, the availability and compatibility are not obstacles. Because ProgenCell performs extraction of bone marrow and immediate infusion, eliminates any need for handling, storage and transport.
IMPORTANT: If you are considering a procedure with stem cells from any source, it is important to take the following considerations:
Know the source, the donor. When an allogeneic procedure is performed, there is a high risk of tissue rejection causing Graft-Versus-Host-Disease (GVHD). The HLA compatibility of the donor is very important, as well as having comprehensive blood tests to screen for infectious diseases (CMV, Hepatitis C, etc) and a complete clinical history record to avoid donors with predispositions to hereditary diseases.
Supplier. In order to avoid complications in a procedure, the product is important; therefore it must a standard of quality such as Good Manufacturing Procedures. Otherwise the cells could be unusable if they were not handled carefully under these high standards during the separation process, packaging, cryopreservation, transport, thawing, etc.
Amount. Tissue regeneration requires a minimum amount of stem cells to be able to repair damaged tissues. The amount needed is tied to the weight of the patient and other medical factors. There has been some success with technology being developed to cultivate these cells ex vivo, growing the number available.